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from jascha's blog

CyberSec AI Agents

In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, organizations are constantly faced with new threats and challenges. As the demand for skilled cybersecurity professionals continues to grow, the talent gap in this critical field has become increasingly apparent. However, the emergence of AI agents promises to revolutionize the way we approach cybersecurity, enabling organizations to enhance their defenses and maximize the productivity of their existing workforce.

AI agents are intelligent, autonomous systems that can learn from their environment and make decisions based on vast amounts of data. In the context of cybersecurity, these agents can be deployed to monitor networks, detect anomalies, and respond to threats in real-time. By leveraging the power of machine learning and artificial intelligence, AI agents can analyze massive volumes of data and identify patterns that human analysts might miss, thereby significantly improving the accuracy and efficiency of threat detection.

One of the most significant advantages of AI agents in cybersecurity is their ability to scale and adapt to the ever-changing threat landscape. Traditional security tools and manual processes often struggle to keep pace with the rapid evolution of cyber threats. In contrast, AI agents can continuously learn and improve their performance, allowing them to stay ahead of the curve and detect even the most sophisticated attacks.

Moreover, AI agents can help organizations overcome the talent gap by empowering their existing cybersecurity professionals to be more productive and effective. By automating routine tasks and providing real-time insights, AI agents can free up valuable time for human experts to focus on more complex and strategic initiatives. This not only improves the overall efficiency of the cybersecurity team but also enables them to make more informed decisions and respond to threats more quickly.

Another key benefit of AI agents in cybersecurity is their ability to enhance collaboration and knowledge sharing within organizations. By serving as a centralized repository of threat intelligence and best practices, AI agents can facilitate the exchange of information and insights among team members, regardless of their location or level of expertise. This helps to break down silos and ensure that everyone has access to the latest threat data and mitigation strategies.

It is important to note, however, that AI agents are not a replacement for human expertise in cybersecurity. While these intelligent systems can greatly enhance an organization's security posture, they still require human oversight and guidance to ensure that they are functioning as intended. Cybersecurity professionals will need to develop new skills and adapt to working alongside AI agents, leveraging their insights and capabilities to make more informed decisions and respond to threats more effectively.

AI agents have the potential to revolutionize the field of cybersecurity by enabling organizations to enhance their defenses, bridge the talent gap, and maximize the productivity of their existing workforce. By leveraging the power of machine learning and artificial intelligence, these intelligent systems can help organizations stay ahead of the threat landscape and protect their critical assets from cyber attacks. As the adoption of AI agents in cybersecurity continues to grow, it is clear that they will play an increasingly critical role in securing our digital future.


from jascha's blog


Artificial intelligence (AI) and large language models (LLMs) have transformed various industries, from healthcare to finance, by enabling machines to understand and generate human-like text. At the heart of many of these models are neural networks, particularly Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs). However, a promising alternative has emerged: Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks (KANs).

What Are Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks (KAN)?

Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks (KANs) are inspired by the Kolmogorov-Arnold representation theorem, a mathematical principle that states any multivariate continuous function can be represented as a composition of continuous functions of a single variable and the operation of addition. Unlike MLPs, which use fixed activation functions on nodes (neurons), KANs employ learnable activation functions on edges (weights), making them fundamentally different in structure and function.

Key Differences Between KANs and MLPs

  1. Learnable Activation Functions: In KANs, activation functions are not fixed but learnable and placed on edges. This flexibility allows KANs to adapt more precisely to the data they are trained on.
  2. No Linear Weights: KANs do not use linear weight matrices. Instead, each weight parameter is replaced by a univariate function parametrized as a spline.
  3. Accuracy and Interpretability: KANs have shown to outperform MLPs in both accuracy and interpretability. Smaller KANs can achieve comparable or better accuracy than larger MLPs and are easier to visualize and understand.

How KANs Can Transform AI and LLMs

Improved Accuracy and Efficiency

KANs have demonstrated superior performance in various tasks, such as data fitting and partial differential equation (PDE) solving. For instance, a smaller KAN can be 100 times more accurate and parameter-efficient compared to a larger MLP. This efficiency translates into faster neural scaling laws, meaning KANs can achieve high performance with fewer computational resources.

Enhanced Interpretability

One of the significant advantages of KANs is their interpretability. KANs can be visualized intuitively, allowing researchers and developers to understand how the network processes information. This transparency is crucial for scientific discoveries, where understanding the underlying mechanisms of the model is as important as its predictive power. KANs have been shown to assist scientists in rediscovering mathematical and physical laws, acting as collaborative tools in research.

Applications in AI and LLMs

  1. Scientific Research: KANs can be used to model complex scientific phenomena accurately, aiding in the discovery and validation of new theories in physics and mathematics.
  2. Natural Language Processing (NLP): In the realm of LLMs, KANs can enhance the ability of models to understand and generate human-like text by providing more accurate and efficient representations of linguistic patterns.
  3. Healthcare: KANs can improve diagnostic models by providing more accurate predictions and better understanding of medical data, leading to improved patient outcomes.

Future Directions and Broader Impacts

The development and adoption of KANs could lead to significant advancements in AI, making models more efficient, accurate, and interpretable. Future research may focus on further improving the scalability of KANs, exploring their applications in various domains, and integrating them with existing AI frameworks to enhance their capabilities.

Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks represent a promising step forward in the field of AI and LLMs. By leveraging the strengths of both splines and MLPs, KANs offer a powerful alternative that could redefine how we approach complex modeling tasks, leading to more intelligent, efficient, and understandable AI systems.


from jascha's blog

Based on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) levels of driving automation, adapted to define the levels of autonomy for AI Agents.

Agent Evolution

  1. Level 0 (No Autonomy): The AI agent has no autonomous capabilities and requires human input for all tasks.

  2. Level 1 (Task Assistance): The AI agent can assist with specific tasks, such as data analysis or content generation, but requires human guidance and oversight.

  3. Level 2 (Partial Autonomy): The AI agent can perform some tasks autonomously, such as decision-making in limited domains, but requires human intervention for more complex tasks or in case of uncertainties.

  4. Level 3 (Conditional Autonomy): The AI agent can handle most tasks autonomously within a specific domain, but may request human intervention in edge cases or when faced with situations outside its training scope.

  5. Level 4 (High Autonomy): The AI agent can handle a wide range of tasks autonomously across multiple domains, with minimal human intervention. It can adapt to new situations and learn from its experiences.

  6. Level 5 (Full Autonomy): The AI agent can perform all tasks autonomously, without requiring human intervention. It can continuously learn, improve, and adapt to new situations across all domains.


from jascha's blog

Thriving in the Era of 100x Large Language Models

Agent Wrangling


As we stand on the precipice of a new era in artificial intelligence, with the next generation of large language models (LLMs) poised to be 100 times more powerful than current models, developers who fail to embrace these transformative tools risk being left behind. The self-deprecation process has already begun for those who hesitate to harness the power of LLMs. In this blog post, we will explore how mastering the art of prompting can help you stay ahead of the curve and thrive in the age of AI-powered knowledge work.

The Prompt: The New Fundamental Unit of Programming

In the world of LLMs, the prompt has emerged as the new fundamental unit of programming. Just as functions and objects have been the building blocks of traditional software development, prompts are now the key to unlocking the potential of AI. By crafting sophisticated prompts and prompt chains, developers can harness the power of LLMs to tackle complex problems and automate knowledge work.

Embracing BAP – Big Ass Prompts

To fully leverage the capabilities of 100x LLMs, developers must think beyond simple, one-off prompts. Enter the concept of BAP – Big Ass Prompts. These comprehensive, carefully designed prompts encapsulate a wealth of domain knowledge and problem-solving strategies. By crafting BAPs, developers can guide LLMs to generate highly targeted and effective solutions to complex challenges.

Mastering the Prompt: The Key to Mastering Knowledge Work

In the era of LLMs, mastering the art of prompting is synonymous with mastering knowledge work. By developing a deep understanding of how to structure prompts, incorporate relevant context, and guide the LLM's output, developers can unlock unprecedented levels of productivity and innovation. Investing time and effort into honing your prompting skills will pay dividends as LLMs continue to evolve and expand their capabilities.

With the advent of larger context windows, spanning up to 1 million tokens, developers can now dump vast amounts of domain-specific knowledge directly into the prompt. This enables LLMs to have access to a wealth of information during the generation process, allowing for more accurate and contextually relevant outputs. By carefully curating and structuring this domain knowledge within the prompt, developers can create highly specialized BAPs that excel at solving specific problems within their field of expertise.

Aggressively Tackling Problems with LLM-Powered Tools and AI Agents

To stay ahead of the curve, developers must actively seek out opportunities to apply LLMs to existing problems. By leveraging LLM-powered tools and AI agents, you can automate repetitive tasks, generate insights from vast amounts of data, and streamline workflows. Embrace an experimental mindset and explore how prompts and prompt chains can be used to create powerful, AI-driven solutions that drive efficiency and innovation.


As we stand on the brink of a new era in artificial intelligence, characterized by 100x more powerful LLMs, developers must adapt and evolve to stay relevant. By mastering the art of prompting, embracing BAPs, and aggressively tackling problems with LLM-powered tools and AI agents, you can position yourself at the forefront of this transformative shift. Remember, the prompt is the new fundamental unit of programming, and those who master it will be the masters of knowledge work in the age of AI.


from Ariketak

Musika dantzatzeko da, motel, musika ez da aldi txarrak pairatzeko. Zera, ez dezu zertan inorren irainak jaso musikaz gozatzeko, motel, ulertzen? Ez dezu zertan. Beraz... beraz, behar adina baino irain gehio jasotzen badituzu, bakizu ze in, ordun. Hau da, musika besterik ez da. Musika... musika beste zeoze omen da.


Music’s for grooving man, and music’s not for puttin’ yourself through bad changes, y’know? I mean, you don’t have to go take anybody’s shit, man, just to like music, y’know what I mean? You don’t. So… so if you’re gettin’ more shit than you deserve, you know what to do about it man. Y’know, it’s just music. Music’s… music’s s’posed to be different than that.

Iturria: Janis Joplin Woodstock-en, 1969an.

Irakurri gehiago...

from Ariketak

Olibondo bat, eta txikiago bat bere alboan

Edan ezazu ura zaldiak edaten duen iturritik. Zaldiak ez du inoiz ur txarrik edango. Ipin ezazu zeure ohea katuak lo egiten duen lekuan. Jan ezazu zizareak dastatu duen fruitua. Hauta ezazu ausardiaz intsektuak eserita dauden onddoak. Landa ezazu zuhaitza satorrak lurra mugitu duen lekuan. Eraiki ezazu zeure etxea sugea berotzeko jesartzen den lekuan. Zula ezazu zeure iturria txoriak berotik babesteko ezkutatzen diren lekuan. Joan zaitez lotara eta jaiki zaitez txoriek egiten duten une berean, eguneko urrezko izpi guztiak ereingo dituzu. Jan ezazu berde gehiago, belaun indartsu eta bihotz sendoa izango dituzu, basoetako izakiak bezalaxe. Ibil zaitez igerian maiz eta arraina uretan sentitzen den bezala sentituko zara lurrean. So egiozu zeruari ahal duzun bezain beste, eta zure pentsamenduak argiagoak eta garbiagoak izango dira. Egon zaitez isilik, mintza zaitez guxiago, eta isiltasuna zeure bihotzera etorriko da, zeure arima lasaia eta baketsua izango da.

Saroveko Serafim (1754 edo 1759 – 1833)

Irakurri gehiago...

from Ariketak

Larrutsak eta azalutsak

Jay Fox

1911ko uztailaren 1a

Artikulu hau, 1911ko uztailaren 1ean agertu zen lehen aldiz The Agitator egunkarian, eta Fox-i bi hilabeteko kartzela zigorra epaitu zioten.

Jantziak gorputza babesteko egin ziren, ez bera ezkutatzeko. Lizunkeria giza gorputzarekin lotzen duen huraxe lizuna da. Gizaldeko eta idealistentzat giza gorputza zoragarria da, arimaren etxea, antzinako poetek abesten zuten eran. Oro har, sineskeri eta sentsualismoaren nahasketaz blai dagoen erdi zibilizatutako basati arrunt batentzat, gorputz biluzi bat ikusteak ez dio iradokitzen ez pentsamendu gorenik, ez sentimendu nobleagorik, sorreraren ordena baxuagoko animali baten itxurak beste batengan eragiten duena baino. Buru arruntak bere burua islatuta ikusten du gauza guztietan. Kutsadurak ezin du kutsaduratik ihes egin, eta kutsatutako buruak bere islapena ikusten du lagun baten gorputz biluzian, eta goizean goizik altxatu eta festa arruntera batzen da, jende zibilizatuarentzat egokia ez den eta saihestu beharreko lagunari, sen basatia piztu dion gorputz garbiaren biktima errugabeari, legearen bitartez zigortzeko. Islapen hauek, Home-n duela gutxi gertaturiko zorigaiztoko gertakari batean oinarrituta daude. Arima libreen komunitate bat da Home, apaizek pozoitutako gizarte konbentzionalaren eguratsetik ihes egitearren basoetara joatea erabaki duen jendez osatua. Hometarrek gozatzen zituzten askatasunen artean, gaueko soinekoarekin edo naturak eskainitako arroparekin bainatzea zen, beraiek nahi zuten moduan. Inor ez zen ikusle-mikusle eran hara joaten pertsona bakoitzak zein jantzi zeraman ikusteko, badiako ur garbien bila baizik. Bada, hori ez zitzaion inori axola. Guztiak aski garbiak ziren pentsamenduz naturaren estali gabeko maisulanean zakarkeriarik eta iradokizun maltzurrik edo lizunik ez ikusteko. Baina, azkenean, zenbait azaluts komunitatera batu ziren, eta jendeari askatasuna kentzeari ekin zioten, kanpoko munduko arrakala eta bortizkeriaz baliatuz. Lau pertsona atxilotu zituzten erakuskeria delitupean. Bi ume txikiren ama den emakume bat espetxeratu zuten. Atxilotutako gizon batek ere kartzela zigorra bete beharko du. Ekintza maltzur hauen egileak, oraindik, boikotatuak zergatik izaten ari diren galdezka dabiltza. Jendeak merezi duen sumina piztu da. Beren askatasuna eraso dute. Komunitateak jasaten duen kanpokoen jazarpena menderatzeko lehen urratsa egin da. Liskar hau erresistentziarik gabe baztertua izango balitz, azalutsek erraz izango lukete aurrera egiteko. Ordea, gurekin bizitzera etorri ziren burugabe horiek, gure lankidetzaz baliatzera eta salgaiak berton merkeago erostera etorritako horiexek, liztortzar baten habian sartu direla ohartu dira. Dauden dendetatik bik beraiekin tratuak egitea ukatu dute, eta bertoko kideak haiek saihesten ahalegintzen dira ahal duten modu guztietan. Egia esan, guztiak ez dira hona gerturatu egoeraren garrantzia ikustera. Baina, dabiltzan horien propagandak diharduko du, eta arerio hauek gure artetik saihesteko kausa azkeneraino eramango da. Lerroak egingo dira eta askatasunean sinestarazten dabiltzanak frogatu ahalko dute. Ez dago leku posiblerik libertarioek bertara ihes egin dezaketenik Home-ren askatasuna babesteko ahaleginean parte hartzen dutelarik. Ez dago erdiko terminorik. Babesten laguntzea ukatzen duten horiexek [sic] beste aldekoei laguntzen ari dira. Askatasuna nahi duten, baina borrokatzeko asmorik ez duten horiexek bizkarroiak dira eta ez dute askatasunik merezi. Inbasioa bost axola zaiona, emakume bati bere umeak kendu eta kartzelara bidali dutela jakin ondoren neurririk hartzen ez duen huraxe, ezin da jo autoritatearen jazarletzat. Bere lekua arerioaren alboan dago. Boikota aurrera eramango da inbaditzaile hauek beren ekintza zakarraz ohartzen diren arte, eta horrela, jendeari jakinaraziko zaio. Gai honi buruz gehiago hausnartuko dugu hurrengo aleetan.

Iturria: Louise Crowley Library (Mastodon)

Oharra: 2024ko martxoaren 14an berrikusia. 2024ko apirilaren 22an egin da bigarren berrikuspena. Liburutegi anarkistan irakurgai.

Irakurri gehiago...

from Ariketak

Katu-belarra: Bere erabilerak eta efektuak, iragana eta oraina

Jeff Grognet

1990eko ekaina

Katu-belarra (ingelesez, catnip) giza gaixotasunetarako luzaro erabilia izan den landare bat da, eta berriki, baita maskoten jostailuetan ere. Hainbat albaitarik ezagutza urria dute landare honen inguruan. Artikulu hau, katu-belarrari buruz jakiteko galdetu zaion profesionalarentzat lagungarri izatea du helburu.

Katu-belarra (Nepeta cataria), mendaren antzera, Labiatae familiakoa den belar bizikorra da (1,2). Katu-belar, katu-bedar edo katuaren menda-belar gisa ezaguna da, ingelesez, alabaina: catnep, catmint, catrup, catwort, nip, nep, eta field bam (lit. landa-baltsamo) (3-7). Badirudi, catnep hitzak katuek landare honenganako duten txeran duela bere jatorria (3).

Landarea Europakoa da (3,5), eta europarrek Ipar Amerikan finkatzean bertan sartu zutela uste da. Erraz hazten da, eta gaur egun, lorategietako ohiko landare bat da Amerikan (3). Sasi, berro, bidezabal, ibaiertz zein zabortegietan aurki dezakegu (4,9,10).

Katu-belarra 25-40 cm-ko altuerara iris daiteke (4,9). Zurtoina, opakua, iletsua zein ilezuria du (7,9). Hostoak aurkakoak, txortendunak, bihotz formakoak, horzdunak, zorrotzak, azpialdean iletsuak eta 5-7,5 cm luze dira (4,7,9). Loreek hodi-formako kalizak dituzte, zuriak eta marka moreak dituztelarik, eta gutxi gorabehera, 0,5 eta 1 cm arteko luzera dute, buruxka trinkoekin (4,7). Landare osoa loratua dagoenean biltzen da, ekainetik irailera arte, hain zuzen (4,8). Landarearen zaporea eta usaina mendaren tankerakoak dira, eta oso lurrintsua da (7,10).

Katu-belarraren konposatuek basakatu zein etxe-katu, beste ugaztun, eta intsektuen portaera aldatzen dute (11,12). Katuei erakartzen dien osagai nagusia laktona asegabearen zis-trans isomerismoa da, nepetalaktona (1,6). Nepetalaktona, katu-belarraren olio esentzialaren % 70-99 da (13). Gernuan metabolizatzen eta iraizten da (13). Katuak ahotik 20 eta 80 miligramo arteko nepetalaktona jaso ostean, ehunaren autopsiaren azterketa histologikoak aztoramen eta minaren absentzia iraunkorra adierazi zuen (13). Nahiz eta katu-belarraren osagai nagusia nepetalaktona izan, osagairik aktiboena honen produktu metabolikoa da, azido nepetalikoa (12,13). Katuek berez erantzuten die 1:109 eta 1:1011 bitarteko aire-kontzentrazioei (1,14).

Katu-belarrarekiko erantzuna, usaintzean, miazkatzean, ondoren, burua astindu bitartean murtxikatzean, kokots eta masailarekin igurtzean, buruz bera pirritatzean eta gorputzarekin igurtzean datza (14). Berezko ahoskatzea gerta daiteke batzuetan, eta haluzinazioekiko erantzun gisa ulertu da (1). Erantzun hau araldiaren ereduen antzekoa da, eta hortaz, afrodisiakoa dela pentsarazi dio jendeari (6,8). Hatch-ek dio erantzun hori ez dela araldiaren jokaeraren berdina, baina, sexu-estimulu apur bat badela (1). Erantzuna, sexu eta gonadaren egoerarekiko independentea da, eta zikiratzeak ez du eraginik katu-belarrarekiko erantzunean (6,14).

Landarea atsegin suerta dakieke katuei usainaren jatorria bilatzen duten heinean, baita egunero bertara itzultzen eta hostotzan pirritatzen direnean (1).

Katu-belarra usain-belar edo aerosol likido aterakin gisa erabil daiteke (2). Erreferentzia zaharragoen arabera, landareak saltari, maitekor eta boteretsu bihurtzen du katua (7). Beste batek, ordea, hostoen propietate sendagarriengatik kontsumitzen dutela dio (10).

Katu orok ez dio katu-belarrari erantzungo. Erantzunaren herentzia autosoma gainartzailearen ezaugarri bat da (1,6,14). Ez dago korrelaziorik arraza edo kolorearekin (14). Etxekoak ez diren felido gehienek erantzuten dute, baina, tigreek erantzuten ez dutela iradoki da (15). Katakume batek sei edo zortzi aste baditu, ez du erantzungo eta baliteke jokabidearen eredua hain azalekoa ez izatea hiru hilabete izan arte (14).

Katu orok ez dio katu-belarrari erantzungo. Erantzunaren herentzia autosoma gainartzailearen ezaugarri bat da.

Urteetan zehar, jendeak katu-belarra prestatu eta erabili du. Jatorriz, te, zuku, tintura, egoskin eta enplastu gisa erabili izan da, baita erreta eta murtxikatuta kontsumitu ere. Dagoeneko ez da erabiltzen, sendagai eraginkorragoen ekoizpena dela eta. Berriki, bere efektu haluzinogenoengatik erabili izan du jendeak.

Tea eta egoskina nerbio-arazoak tratatzeko izan ohi ziren, eta badago Sydenham-en (1624-1689) aipu koloretsu bat. Katu-belarraren efektuak lotu zituen bere usain indartsu eta kirasdunekin, gehiegizko eta basamortuko Espirituei beren Urtaro egokietara deituak izateko (16). Efektu lasaigarria du, eta buruko mina, histeria eta eromena tratatzeko erabili izan da (5,8,10).

Landarearen sustraiak aurkako efektua du. Erreferentzia batek dio sustraia murtxikatuz gero, pertsonarik lasaitxoena anker eta liskarti bilakatuko duela (7,8). Badirudi, katu-belarra estimulatzaile leun gisa eta nerbio-sisteman duen efektu lasaigarriengatik erabili dela.

Tearen prestakuntzaren metodoa ontza bat (28 gramo inguru) pinta batean (473 ml) jartzea da, ura irakiten dagoelarik (3,8,11). Helduentzat 2-3 koilarakada (30-45 ml) eta umeentzat 2-3 koilaratxokada (10-15 ml) (8). Te gehiegi edanez gero, gorakoa gertatzen da (8).

Katu-belarra umeen koliko (antiespasmodiko) eta haize-minen (karminatibo) sendagai gisa erabiltzen zen (4,5,7). Zotina sendatzeko ere erabili dela adierazi da (10). Pasadizozko istorio baten arabera, ume batek konbultsio bat izan zuen gaindosiagatik (3).

Emakumearen ugalketan laguntzaile delakoaren inguruan baieztapenak egin dira. Tea emenagogo gisa erabiltzen zen hilekoa eragiteko (5,7,8). Belar berde zukutu berria kontsumitzeko beste era bat zen; koilarakada bat (15 ml) egunean hirutan hartzen zen hilekoa ekartzeko (8). Erditzean lagungarri gisa erabiltzen zen katu-belarraren tea edanaz, baita plazentaren hustuketa uztartzeko ere (5).

Enplastuak gorputzaren edozein lekutan aplika zitezkeen, hauek hagineko mina tratatzeko erabiltzen ziren (5,18). Orokorrean, hanturak murrizteko erabiliak izan ziren (4,5). Katu-belarraren enplastuak ama edoskitzailearen mindutako bularretan aplikatzen ziren, eta lepoan, berriz, amigdalitisa tratatzeko (5). Wren-en arabera, belar berdea, maspilduta eta bi edo hiru orduz lekuan mantenduta, odoluzkiek eragindako mina leun dezake (7).

Hotzeriaren aurkako sendagai, urtikariaren aurkako sendabide, diaforetiko (izerdia eragiten du), hozgarri (gorputza hozten du), eta anodino (mina arintzen du) gisa ere enplegatu da katu-belarra (5,9,18). Mina eta hezueriarentzako bizkorgarri gisa, kukutxeztul eta txarranpina tratatzeko egoskin gisa, asmarako te gisa, eta sukar hori, eskarlatina, baztanga eta min horiaren aurkako tratamendu gisa ere badira eman zaizkion erabilerak. Arnas gaixotasunak arintzeko, aldiz, erreta kontsumitzen zen (4,5).

1960. hamarkadan, katu-belarra marihuanaren ordezko edo betegarri gisa erabiltzen zen. Maskoten jostailuak erosi ere egiten ziren beraietatik katu-belarra eskuratu eta erabiltzeko.

1960. hamarkadan, katu-belarra marihuanaren ordezko edo betegarri gisa erabiltzen zen (4,11,17). Maskoten jostailuak erosi ere egiten ziren beraietatik katu-belarra eskuratu eta erabiltzeko (4). Normalean, tabakoarekin nahasten zen, katu-belarra bakarrik azkarregi erretzen baita (2). Efektu handiagoa lor zitekeen alkohol aterakina tabakoan ihinztatuz eta gero hura erreta kontsumituz (2,3). Katu-belarrak ikusmen- eta entzumen-haluzinazioak eragiten ditu (1,18). Jendea zoriontsu, alai eta mozkortuta sentiarazten du, marihuanaren antzera (2). Oraindik orain ez da erabiltzen, marihuana eskuragarriago baitago, eta fidagarriagoa baita bere efektuei dagokienez.

Laburbilduz, gaur egun, katu-belarra katuei euforia egoera batean egon daitezen erabiltzen da. Ez dirudi mingarria denik, eta oso erakargarria da katu batzuentzat, nahiz eta batzuek jaramonik ez egin. Katu-belarrak, berriki, ospe labur bat izaten du jendearengan droga haluzinogeno bezala, eta etxeko sendagai oso ohikoa izan zen.


  1. Hatch RC. Effect of drugs on catnip (Nepeta cataria) induced pleasure behavior in cats. Am J Vet Res 1972; 33: 143-155.
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Iturria: Grognet J. Catnip: Its uses and effects, past and present. Can Vet J. 1990 Jun;31(6):455-6. PMID: 17423611; PMCID: PMC1480656.

Oharra: Katu-belarraren euskal izen ezberdinak neronek txertatu ditut artikulua alde horretatik lokalizatzeko. Izen horien iturriak: Labayru Hiztegia eta Josu Lopez-Gazpioren Animaliak drogatzen direnean artikulua, Zientzia Kaieratik.

Irakurri gehiago...

from Ariketak


Emma Goldman

1912ko urtarrila

Enpresari kristauek Jesusen jaiotza ospatu berri dute. Mozkinak eta Jainkoaren handitasuna areagotu nahian, Salbatzailea xurgatu dute arrazoi on batekin. Erospenaren garaipen argia! Kristok bere odola eman zuen elizek eta saltegi handiek irabazi gehiago egin dezaten. Bada, jaungoiko gorenaren eskuinaldean, berak ez badu madarikatzen garaipen hau aingeruenetan aingeruenei hunkitzeko, bihotza bildotsarena bezalakoxea du.

Zorionez, ateoak gara, ez kristauak, eta inola ere ez, Salbatzailearen etsipen samingarriaren arduradunak.

Halere, Mother Earth-ek urte berrirako dituen itxaropenak ez daude ez kalkulu erlijioso ez politikoen mende. Jendearengan berpiztutako ezagueraren mende daude, alegia, etorkizun handi eta zoriontsua beren eskuetan dutenen mende; guztion askatasuna eta ongizatean oinarritutako egitura sozial berria.

Bost urteetan zehar, Mother Earth-ek bereari eutsi dio lotiari esnatu, ahulari indartu eta ausartari kemena emateko, hala izanik, datorren borroka handian aurrealdea era dezaten. Haien zereginak errazak izatetik urrun egonik; gabezia irabaziaren gainetik nabarmendu zen. Kamarada guztien laguntzaren uste osoa dugu, ia ezinezkoa baita konpromisorik gabeko argitalpen beldurgabe bat mantentzea diruzalekeria eta espekulazioa darizkion atmosfera honetan. Ez dira mobilizatu Mother Earth-i laguntza eskaintzeko, behintzat, ez batek uste lukeen heineraino. Baliteke gure aldizkariak guztion onarpena ez jasotzea, edo, hobeto esanda, kamaradek ezin ulertzea Mother Earth-ek duen kokaleku zaila, alderdi baten edo iragarki-sail baten babes eza, alegia. Edonola ere, aldizkariaren oinarrizko mantenua nire idazkietatik dator. Bestela, Mother Earth duela askotik desagertua egongo litzateke. Esan beharrik ez dago, anarkismoa ez litzake hil beharko aldizkaria eteten bada. Hala eta guztiz ere, anarkismoak ez du inoiz erakusle baten behar hain handirik izan gaur arte. Propaganda anarkistak txikikeria eta nahitaezko gaizki ulertu bat izateari utzi dio. Jendea, bere esanahi sakon eta garrantzi handiaz ohartzen ari da. Mother Earth-ek, Amerikako aldizkari anarkista bakar gisa, jarreraren aldaketa soziala gorenera arte erabili behar du jakintza eta anarkismoaren printzipioen inguruko informazioa barreiatzeko. Horixe da bere helburua, horretan datza zeregina.

Hau guztia esanda, kamarada eta lagun orori egiten diegu dei bost urteko estres eta ekaitza ausarki jasan dituen borrokalari xumearekin bat egiteko. Lehenik eta behin, harpidetza berri dezaten eskatzen diegu gure lagunei. Horixe da egin dezaketen gutxiena. The Soul of Man Under Socialism (Gizonaren arima sozialismoaren pean) saiakeraren kopia bat banatuko da harpidetzaren berritze bakoitzarekin. Are gehiago lagundu nahi duten horientzat, harpidedun gehiago bilatzen lagun gaitzakete. Hiru harpidedun berri ekartzen dituen lagun orok, Anarchism and Other Essays (Anarkismoa eta beste saiakerak) eta Conquest of Bread (Ogiaren konkista) lanen doako kopia bana jasoko du. Eskala handiago batean gure hitza zabaldu nahi duten kamaradek gure 5 zentaboko panfletoak bidali behar dituzte, 100 panfleto 3 dolarretan salgai daudelarik.

Kamaradok eta lagunok, bildu ditzagun gure eskuak urte berri honetan aurrean dugun lan handirako. Heldu da garaia. Oraina bizkor iritsiko da bere amaierara. Anabasatik at, etorkizuna harmonia eta edertasun osoz azaleratzen da.


P.S.: Hil honen bukaeran, gure urteroko martxa abiatuko dugu arerioaren kanpalekuan. Hitzaldi sorta berri batekin hasteko asmoa dugu Pittsburgh-en, Pennsylvania. Kamaradek eta taldeek nahiago dituzten datak niri jakinarazi diezazkidatela ahal bezain laster. Helbidea: 55 W. 28th street, New York.


Oharra: The New Year Emma Goldmanek idatzi zuen eta Mother Earth-en argitaratu zen 1912ko urtarrilean. Jabari publikoan dago gaur egun. 2024ko apirilaren 22an berrikusia. Liburutegi anarkistan irakurgai.

Irakurri gehiago...

from msnws

Just wanted to lay out a thought that’s been bouncing around my head now for a while.

As I left school and confronted the pressures and responsibilities that come with adult life, I quickly realized that my previous strategy of half-assing my life quickly wasn’t effective anymore. You can’t half-ass an office job. You can’t half-ass paying your bills on time. If you want to make people feel comfortable in your home, you can’t half-ass things like taking out the trash or keeping your place clean.

It was all way too much to handle at once for me. And as my responsibilities continued to grow, I turned towards the internet for help managing my life. That’s when I first encountered the rabbit hole that I like to call the internet’s “productivity community.”

What exactly is the productivity community, you might ask? Just search “productivity” on YouTube and see what comes up. Or, if you really want to go deeper down the rabbit hole, search for things like “Task Management Apps” or “Best Note Taking Apps” and, without fail, you’ll quickly notice that you see the same familiar faces, and concepts such as GTD (Getting Things Done) and Building a Second Brain.

At the time, this content was a revelation for me. I had never taken the time to develop solid organizational skills because I had an executive function disorder that flew under the radar. Before this, in school, I was able indulge in my own worst habits. I chronically procrastinated. I had a teacher who graded on completion and came to our desks only looking to see if we had something written down. I showed her old homework every single time.

Now, I was learning how to take control of my life. Over the years, I became well acquainted with GTD. I started using a task management app. I closed all of my “open loops” by religiously entering them into my inbox. I diligently did my weekly reviews.

I began taking detailed notes on things in a note-taking app. I learned the PARA method. When bi-directional linking notes together became popular, I followed suit.

When I felt as though my system wasn’t suiting me, I changed things. I changed the apps I used. Then I changed them again. Then I changed them again and again and again. My productivity system had to be perfect. I had to be perfect. Why couldn’t I just do the things I was supposed to do? Clearly these systems weren’t working for me. So I had to adapt. I had to look up more videos. More articles. More guides.

I watched videos on how to improve my focus, building habits, hacking your sleep, watching all your content on 2x speed to increase media consumption, how to purge all of your belongings, and so on and so on.

Nothing worked.

Early this year (2023 as I’m writing this) I was diagnosed with ADHD-PI. In the immediate aftermath of my diagnosis, seismic waves of realizations about my entire life and many of the things I’ve experienced over time washed over me. One of these realizations was that my endless pursuit of productivity and self-improvement stemmed from my undiagnosed condition.

I can recall a a moment where I had decided I had to change my productivity system up. I obsessively picked apart GTD’s five step process in and effort understand it better. I can remember telling myself, exasperated, that Step 5 – “Engage” or “Do” was the weakest link in the system. “It doesn’t tell you how or when to actually do stuff!” I’d tell myself. “It’s so vague!”

Clearly I didn’t consider that, for most people, the part where you “do” the things on your list is the easy part of GTD.

This leads me to my greater point… all of these systems, productivity methods, hacks, etc. are not designed for those of us with ADHD. They’re designed for those who might struggle with organization or who might need more guidance, but not those who are struggling with executive functioning, processing difficulties or short-term memory issues.

I also came to understand that self-proclaimed “productivity gurus” such as David Allen, Ali Abdaal, Tiago Forte, Francesco d’Alessio, Matt D’avella, Thomas Frank and many others, whether intentionally, or more likely, as a result of the dopamine fueled lotto that is social media, exist as hostile and predatory figures to the neurodiverse community.

These people operate by creating content that promises the viewer clarity, the ability to “get things done,” improve their thinking and creativity and, in some nefarious cases, make a great deal of money, among other things. All you have to do is take the advice they give in their videos on blind faith. Just check out this new app, try this new way of organizing yourself, connect your apps in this specific way, develop these particular habits. And then, since they’re content creators who operate in an attention-driven economy, and exploit social media patterns for their own gain, they release their next video containing new recommendations, new and better systems, and other, shiny new ways to do things ad infinitum.

To someone with ADHD who doesn’t know any better, like myself, this hijacks a genuine interest in improving oneself and becomes a hyper fixation that will likely only result in frustration, disappointment, perfectionism and burnout.

I’ve since realized that productivity influencers are overrated. Especially those who don’t struggle with issues like mine. Their advice for someone like me is bogus and won’t ever stick. You mean to tell me that I should organize all of my notes into a Projects folder, Areas folder, Resources folder or Archive folder, keep those folders organized, mirror this setup in a task manager, add contexts to my tasks, prune my notes for bi-directional links all while tracking my habits in a custom kanban database in Notion? Yeah right… the minute I fall off of a system this rigid in favor of something more simplistic is the minute everything falls apart.

I read some advice on the ADHD subreddit some time back. It said this:

“I really think the problem with most organizational systems for people with ADHD is that other people’s systems almost never work for us. We need to build our own, and understand that the things the system is telling us to do are coming from US, not some outside authority”

This has become my exact position over time. Nowadays, I keep things simple. I largely use stock apps on my iPhone, iPad and MacBook and focus far more on what works for me. I try not to worry about perfection anymore. I regard all the creators in the productivity rabbit hole with disdain, whether justified or not. It doesn’t matter to me.

Living with ADHD sucks. It’s not easy. I’ll likely have issues forming habits, being organized or taking charge of my own life for the entirety of my life. I can recognize that and work on my problems one step at a time. I don’t need random people with expensive cameras and Skillshare money to remind me that these tendencies make things harder for me. What’s more, I definitely don’t need them to sell me their new solution of the week as though it’s some golden answer that will fix me.


from msnws

Hi all -

I'd like to start posting monthly updates. My hope is to make these a recurring post so I can commemorate and share what’s been happening in my life. I have no idea what structure this will take, but I’ll likely talk about a wide variety of things that have stood out for me.

Let's dive into some of my highlights in June.


Last month, I ran my first race in over eight years. Back in college, I used to love participating in races, though the distances were never too crazy. Even though I’m a more experienced runner at this stage in my life, I kept the distance on this race low and participated in a 5k in my local neighborhood. The weather was brutally hot that day and I was very under-hydrated, but the race was a lot of fun!

As the cherry on top, however, my partner invited a handful of friends and some of her family to support me at the park near our apartment. I felt a lot of love and encouragement for what ended up being such a short run.

Overall, I finished the race at 29:53 which is a time I’ll gladly take, given that I’ve been struggling various ankle and knee injuries since December 2021.

As a bonus, I’ll throw in my running playlist I’ve been rocking out to lately. It’s all electronic, and mostly Psy/Goa stuff, but it makes for great running music! If that interests you, feel free to pop it on for your next run.

Here's the link

Violet Noise

In my first post on the blog, I mentioned my music project. However, I didn't go into much detail. So, without further ado, let me introduce you to Violet Noise. VN's a complete passion project and my goal is really to just make music that interests me. I do all of the songwriting, production, mixing, marketing and visual art. It's been a great outlet for me, if I'm being honest.

June saw me diving back into the swing of songwriting, whilst also toying around with some new sounds/techniques. Lately, I’ve been really interested in learning to chop breaks, inspired by all the break and jungle music I’ve been listening to in the last handful of months. As such, I’ve been strongly considering incorporating some of those sounds into my music.

As of right now, my plan is to release a couple of singles before diving deep into a much larger project, most likely an LP. After releasing my EP, I planned on slowing down a bit as a “palette cleanser” before immersing myself in a huge project. Currently, I have rough, rough, rough sketches for about 10 songs. Only 2 of which will survive. Half aren’t even real songs with full instrumentation yet. They’re just beats! Regardless, there’s nothing much to share at the moment, other than sharing that I’m working on music as much as I'm able to.


After everything that went down with Reddit last month, I’ve fully transitioned from Reddit to Tildes. I have to say, the experience has been really refreshing so far.

After spending well over a decade on Reddit, I started to realize just how much that place brought me down with its endless negativity. It felt like nearly half of the posts were laced with negative sentiment or were just focused on straight up complaining. It’s funny because right before all the API shenanigans began, I had started to really think about Reddit’s impact on my mental well-being. So, when all of this began to unfold, I gladly deleted every account I've ever made at Reddit and haven’t looked back since.

On the other hand, Tildes, has been a breath of fresh air. The community is pleasant, and the discussions there are real. Like… really real. It’s fun to be back on a platform that moves a little “slower” (I'll likely post about this concept at some point, since it's something that's been on my mind lately).

I have 4 invites Tildes left. If anyone reading this is interested, feel free to private message me on Mastodon. That’ll probably be the fastest way to get my attention.

Pocket Casts

Over the last several months, I've been experimenting with Overcast as my daily podcatcher. After some time though, I've made the switch back to Pocket Casts as my go-to app for podcasts.

While Overcast is certainly a good app and nothing to sneeze at, Pocket Casts ultimately still wins me over due to its customizable playlist features and better Apple Watch functionality.

This topic tends to elicit a diversity of opinions since its so dependent on the way in which you, as the user, prefer organizing and consuming your media. Personally, being able to organize the podcasts in my feed via adjustable filters neatly fits the way I approach finding the next thing to listen to. Therefore, Pocket Casts is the clear winner in my book.

Have your own thoughts? Suggestions for podcatchers/podcasts? Drop me a note on Mastodon, I'd love to chat!

La La Land

This will be my last note since I'm starting to realize that I could keep this going for quite a while!

My partner and I had a great time at the Rooftop Cinema Club in Chicago's West Loop, where we watched “La La Land.” I actually saw this film in theaters when it first came out, but this time around, I felt as though the film resonated with me more deeply. Maybe I’m just a little more media literate now? It's also possible that, because I'm older and have more life experience, many of the themes and hardships Seb and Mia go through are more relatable. And, without spoiling the film for those of you who haven't seen it, I think this allowed me to feel a deeper emotional connection to the end of the film.

No film is perfect, and La La Land is no exception to this rule. There are problematic aspects of the movie (white saviorism and all that). Those elements of the film occasionally lessened my enjoyment of the plot, and made certain moments harder to watch. Additionally,, many people online and in my own life have noted that the film sags in the middle. However, at the end of the day, there's a lot to this film that's special.

The set pieces, the music, the chemistry between Stone and Gosling… there’s a lot to appreciate here. All in all, it made for a really nice night out at the movies.

If you’ve read this far, then thanks! I’m still trying to figure out how I want to approach writing on this blog. I thought this format could be a nice way to hold myself accountable when it comes to posting consistently.

Stay tuned for more of my thoughts on this blog. I look forward to providing a July Highlights post soon enough.

Until next time!

#running #music #musicproduction #tildes #reddit #podcasts #movies


from msnws

This will be my only post about #Threads since I don’t care to give it the time or attention it doesn’t need.

As it stands right now, it feels chaotic and impersonal. While #Mastodon feels like a nice community where I follow real blogs (micro as they may be) that I’m interested in. Threads feels like the old social media dick measuring contest to see who can make the most bottom-of-the-barrel joke the fastest and subsequently rake in the most likes/reposts the fastest.

As an aside, in my use case, Instagram is primarily a platform used by my real life connections. Almost all of the people I know in real life stopped using/actually posting on micro-blogging platforms like #Twitter or Mastodon around 2016.

A lot of people I know tie their real names to their Instagram handles. Conversely, a lot of people I know no longer want their real names tied to their microblogging handles.

So sure, there might have been a few million users signing up in the first few hours, but how many of those accounts will convert to people who actually contribute to the community and post?

At the end of the day, I think Threads is here to stay. At least for quite a while. But, if user engagement, and therefore, ad revenue, is low, it’s definitely the kind of thing I could see #Meta pulling the plug on in a handful of years.

Regardless, I know I won't be using it any time soon.


from Brian Johnson

Although I have always loved the idea of social networks, I had withdrawn from pretty much all of them because I felt the decisions made by each to maximize their revenue resulted in a worse and worse experience for the users of those networks.

As I was following the news of all the problems at Twitter since Elon Musk bought it, I became aware of a microblogging platform named Mastodon. The more I read, the more I thought that this has the best promise of becoming what I think a social network should be.

Apparently, I am not alone. Although Mastodon launched in 2016, by October 2022 it had acquired only a few hundred thousand accounts. But with the chaos at Twitter and subsequent news coverage, it has since grown to over 15 million accounts across thousands of independently run instances since then. And Mastodon is just part of a larger community which is usually identified by the term Fediverse containing platforms for not just microblogging, but full blogging, picture sharing, video sharing, friend/community networking, and more.

What makes Mastodon (and the Fediverse) different, and why does it hold promise? Most social networks are single instances managed by for-profit entities. By single instance, I mean that you have exactly one address to enter, such as Facebook.com or Twitter.com. Because these entities want to make lots and lots of money, they do things that work well for them, but not necessarily for you. The two most noticeable are paid placement (ads) and engagement algorithms.

Paid placement is what you think it is. Much of the money is made by selling ad space. An advertiser decides what audiences they want to target (which may or may not be things you are interested in) and pays money to force their posts into your feed or stream. Not all ads are for goods and services either – they may be political ads targeting you because of your religion, race, gender, or other aspect of your life that the platform has collected and categorized about you, with some platforms bragging to have hundreds of thousands of data categories they can tag you with.

The other big thing (and in my opinion, the most dangerous) is the engagement algorithms. A platform can't collect data about you and show you ads if you aren't there. These platforms have massive AI engines that try to determine what you are most likely to engage in, and force those posts into your feed and at a higher placement.

Notice I said “what you are most likely to engage in,” not “what you like to read.” These two things may overlap, but they are not the same. It is well known that it is easier to get people acting if they are scared, angry, incensed, or offended, then if they are happy. These algorithms only learn what works – they have no morals. (Sometimes a platform will temporarily dampen posts about a hot issue, but this isn't learning, it's more of a topical whack-a-mole.) Study after study shows that continued exposure to this information flow correlates to increased likelihood of depression, anxiety, poor self-image, and even violence and suicide. Yet these algorithms do so much to bolster the bottom line, they persist.

(For more information on the engagement algorithms, I recommend the book The Chaos Machine: The Inside Story of How Social Media Rewired Our Minds and Our World by Max Fisher)

So how is Mastodon (and other parts of the Fediverse) different? There is not one owner of the network, it is comprised of thousands of independently owned and managed servers. Similar to email, your identity consists of a user name and an instance name. With no single owner, there is no single entity that can decide how the whole Fediverse operates. Don't like the way your Mastodon server is managed? There is a process to move your account to one you like better.

Mastodon has no ads, and does not collect/harvest personal information to use or to sell. Of course, it costs money to run these servers. Many (most) servers ask for donations, either one time or on a subscription basis. Others may charge for usage if they want. Again, if you don't like the way your server gets money to keep things running, just move to another one.

If you are interested in learning more about Mastodon, there is a really good article at https://tidbits.com/2023/01/27/mastodon-a-new-hope-for-social-networking/.

Mastodon and the Fediverse really are different from the for-profit behemoths we are used to. They look different, they feel different, and to find your way around, you will need to think different.

It’s about time.


from msnws

Hello -

Bear with me since this is my first blog post. I’ll try to keep it short and sweet.

My name is Mason. I’m a creative living in Chicago. I use the vague word “creative” here because I’m a bit of a Jack of all trades, master of none. Basically, my ideas to output ratio is very low (likely as a result of my ADHD). A lot of different mediums resonate with me, but I have trouble seeing things through. Obviously I’m learning to change that, and I even independently released my first EP of produced music a couple of months ago! It’s all a work in progress.

I’ll likely be posting my thoughts, ideas and other things here. I have a wide variety of interests so you’ll likely see a bit of everything from music production, visual art, graphic design (my day job), ADHD talk, Apple hardware/software and more.

Really, whatever catches my eye and is too long for other platforms is fair game.

You can find me on the Fediverse for shorter thoughts. Additionally, here’s a link my music. I’ll eventually have my portfolio site up, but it’s under construction so no point in that right now.

Until next time!

#introductions #ADHD #Chicago